Royaume Uni : Austérité budgétaire

Royaume Uni - Drapeau Tour d'horizon sur les décisions budgétaires Européens face à la crise financière des dettes souveraines.

Royaume-Uni

Capitale:

Londres

Nature de l'État:

Monarchie

Superficie (km)²:

244 046

Forme de l'État:

État unitaire

Indépendance:

1801

Régime:

Parlementaire

Monnaie:

Livre sterling

Système électoral:

Majoritaire uninominal

   

Démocratie:

Élevé

   

Vote des femmes

1918

   

Système partisan

Multipartisme

Standard Poor's

AAA - Négatif

   

Endettement / PIB (Mai 2010)

79 %

Déficit public de

11,5 %

Le nouveau gouvernement de coalition Tories-libéraux démocrates de David Cameron, entré en fonction en mai, a déjà annoncé des baisses des dépenses publiques de plus de 9,6 milliards d'euros. Le gouvernement a hérité de son prédécesseur travailliste "du plus grand déficit budgétaire" en Europe à l'exception de l'Irlande, a affirmé George Osborne. "Avec ce budget inévitable, nous avons dû augmenter les impôts, payer le prix de l'irresponsabilité passée et réapprendre la vertu de la prudence financière."

Vidéo - Royaume UniLe Royaume-Uni est entré dans une ère de rigueur, le chancelier Osborne ayant annoncé un plan d'austérité sans précédent, visant à dégager des dizaines de milliards d'euros d'économies, pour éliminer en 5 ans la quasi-totalité du déficit budgétaire légué par le Labour.

Le gouvernement de coalition formé le mois dernier par les conservateurs et les libéraux démocrates «a hérité du plus grand déficit budgétaire en Europe», en valeur absolue, et «ce budget est nécessaire pour restaurer la confiance envers notre économie», a plaidé le chancelier de l'Échiquier George Osborne, en présentant au Parlement son premier budget.

Il a dévoilé un catalogue de mesures visant à éliminer totalement le déficit dit «structurel» sur cinq ans, c'est-à-dire la durée de la législature.

Le déficit structurel correspond à la partie du déficit public qui n'est pas liée à des difficultés temporaires de l'économie, et qui ne va donc pas se résorber automatiquement avec la reprise.
(hum … ex : le Québec)

Devant la Chambre des Communes, le chancelier de l'Échiquier a également affirmé que son programme permettrait de ramener en cinq ans l'emprunt de l'État britannique de 10% à 1% du produit intérieur brut.

Dette publique et liberté économique :

Royaume-Uni - Dette publique Royaume - Unis - Rank Royaume Unis - Economic Freedom

Classement selon la Banque Mondiale ‘Doing business’ :

Banque mondiale - Doing business
Rang mondial: 5 sur 183
Royaume Uni - Mondiale
Rang selon les membres de l’OCDE: 3 sur 27
Royaume Uni - OCDE

Rigueur budgétaire : 

Date

Mesures

Descriptions

Juin -2010

 

Un relèvement de la taxe sur la valeur ajoutée, qui passera de 17,5% à 20%.

Cependant, les produits de base comme les denrées alimentaires, les vêtements d'enfant et les livres en seront exonérés.

     
   

L'impôt sur les plus values passera de 18% à 28%, affectant principalement les foyers aisés.

     
   

Les fonctionnaires devront se serrer la ceinture, avec un gel des salaires pendant deux ans sauf pour les plus modestes, et un durcissement de leur régime de retraite.

     
   

Quant au budget de la majorité des ministères, il sera amputé de 25% pour réaliser 36 milliards d'euros d'économies par an, hormis ceux de la santé et l'aide au développement, qui seront «sanctuarisés». La répartition précise de ces coupes sera annoncée cet automne.

     
   

Des réformes structurelles majeures, comme réduire les interventions de l'État dans certains domaines ou diminuer le nombre de fonctionnaires.

     
   

Que le gouvernement imposerait en janvier 2011 une nouvelle taxe sur les banques destinée à collecter 2,4 milliards d'euros.

     
   

Au moins 13,2 milliards d'euros seront économisés dans le système de protection sociale, via un gel des allocations familiales pendant trois ans, la réduction de crédits d'impôts pour les familles et la limitation des allocations logement.

     
   

Le ministre des Finances a également signalé qu'une prime maternité serait supprimée.

     

Le premier discours de David Cameron, voici des extraits, certaines remarques sont très pertinentes et peut s’appliquer au Québec.

Extrait de : David Cameron: Transforming the British economy, Friday, May 28 2010

This is my first major speech as Prime Minister – and I am going to address the first priority of this government: transforming our economy.

Today, Britain is at a turning point. The decisions we make now will live with us for decades to come. For many years we have been heading in the wrong direction.

Our economy has become more and more unbalanced, with our fortunes hitched to a few industries in one corner of the country, while we let other sectors like manufacturing slide.

It has become over-reliant on welfare, with mass worklessness accepted as a fact of life and around five million people now on out-of-work benefits. It has become increasingly hostile to enterprise, with business investment in the past decade growing at around one per cent each year – only a quarter of what it was the decade before. It has become far too dependent on the public sector, with over half of all jobs created in the last ten years associated in some way with public spending.

And, of course, as a country we have become indebted on an unprecedented scale. Our huge deficit and rapidly growing public debt are the clearest manifestations of our economic mistakes – the glaring warning sign overhead telling us we have taken the wrong route.

We have been sleepwalking our way to an economy that is unsustainable, unstable, unfair and, frankly, uninspiring.

Now that this country is waking up to it, the people of Britain – the people of the world – want to know: can we turn this around? Can we rebalance economic power across our regions, across different industries, so that more people have a stake in our success? Can we end the inevitability of millions on long-term welfare and bring hope to those unemployed? Can we inject new life into the private sector, so that enterprise can drive not just our recovery but the re-building beyond it? Can we go from an economy built on debt and borrowing to one built on saving and investment? Can we re-open Britain for business?

My answer is an unequivocal, emphatic yes.

Deficit

That task begins with the deficit.

Today, the British state is borrowing one pound for every four it spends. Our Budget deficit is set to overtake Greece. If we don’t deal with this, there will be no growth, there will be no recovery. It will be undercut by rising interest rates, rising inflation, falling confidence and the prospect of higher taxes. Getting the deficit down and keeping it down will help to restrain inflationary pressures, allow interest rates to remain lower for longer and create the space for private sector investment.

There are difficult choices ahead. But they are unavoidable – and it’s the same for our international partners. Almost every country in Europe faces the same challenge – to reduce deficits in order to help restore sustainable growth. I’ve met with Chancellor Merkel and President Sarkozy and discussed some of the issues facing the Eurozone.

Of course we are outsiders in one sense – we are not members of the euro and we will not join the euro. And that is absolutely right. But we have shared interests. We want the Eurozone to deal with its problems. We want it to be prosperous. We want it to be stable. That is not only in their own interests but in ours – about half of our exports go to the EU, overwhelmingly to the Eurozone.

And they want us to get our deficit down and restore Britain’s economic vitality – because we are the Eurozone’s largest export market; larger even than the US.

Cutting the deficit not enough

So turning our economy around begins with cutting the deficit. But that cannot be the only part of our strategy for economic growth. It is only the start of what we must do.

Just as our plans to build the Big Society aren’t simply about cutting back big government and hoping civic society will spring to life so our plans to revive our economy are not simply about cutting public spending and hoping the private sector will spring to action. Government cannot be a bystander.

In society we will actively agitate for social renewal and community action and in our economy we will actively help new businesses start, attract enterprise to our shores, light the fires of entrepreneurialism in every corner of our country. That’s what our coalition strategy for growth is all about.

Liberalise

·         First, we will liberalise.

·         As someone who believes in the free market, it will not surprise you that I believe a big part of the previous Government’s economic failure was their endless interference. There was too much tax, too much regulation, too little understanding of what our businesses need to compete.

·         The facts are clear. Britain’s competitiveness has suffered in recent years, with businesses ranking us 84th in the world for tax and 86th for regulation. Indeed, since 1997, the tax legislation handbook has doubled in length. But you don’t need to know the facts to see how heavy this burden is. You see it in the exasperated faces of businesspeople. I’ve seen it, countless times, in my constituency and on my visits around the country. These people struck out into the world of enterprise with boundless hope and ambition and found themselves in a world of bureaucratic pain.

·         So a big part of our strategy for growth is getting out of the way of business. I’m going to be asking George Osborne, Vince Cable, David Willetts and their teams some simple questions week in, week out: what are you doing to make it easier to start a business? Easier to take people on? What are you doing to make regulation less complicated? To make locating a business here more attractive?

·         But perhaps the most important change is our new ‘one-in-one-out’ rule for regulation. It’s simple: if you’re a Minister who wants to bring in a new piece of regulation, first you’ve got to find an existing one to get rid of. No-one should underestimate how revolutionary this is. For a long time, the whole business of Whitehall has been about creating new regulations. This new rule completely blows that culture apart.

·         Over the weeks and months ahead, we will go much, much further – especially with radical tax reform. We’ll cut corporation tax rates by simplifying reliefs and allowances and tackling avoidance – while protecting manufacturing industries.

·         We will abolish employers’ National Insurance Contributions on the first ten jobs created by new businesses for the next two years.

·         And we will reform the complex Controlled Foreign Companies rules that have driven business overseas.

·         I am under no illusions. Achieving all this will be hard and it won’t happen overnight. But when we’ve finished, this will all add up to Britain having one of the most competitive tax systems in the world. Indeed our ambition is to have the most competitive corporate tax system in the G20.

·         Let’s make the next decade the most entrepreneurial and dynamic in our history – and let’s do it together. All of us, across Britain, sharing in our prosperity.

Conclusion

I passionately believe we don’t have to accept things the way they are. Imagine if Germany had given up after the Second World War, leaving the bombed-out factories on the Ruhr lying dormant. Imagine if South Korea, after years of war, surrendered to its fate as an economic backwater in the 1950s.

Imagine if Margaret Thatcher had seen the British economy in the seventies, wracked by strikes and deep in debt, and decided just to manage our decline.

They said ‘no, we can transform our economy’ – and they did, turning war-ravaged regions and strike ruined countries into economic power houses.

So this is my message today. There is no such thing as economic destiny. We can transform our economy here. We can turn this around. We make the future ourselves. Instead of controlling business, we will free enterprise to compete. Instead of acting with short-term initiatives we will think long-term about the modern support our economy needs. Instead of tolerating economic apartheid, we will give local people the power and the freedom to build success from the bottom up.

  1. gravatar

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