Royaume –Uni – Éducation - White Paper 2010

Voici des extraits du White Paper 2010 sur l’éducation du Royaume-Uni :

5. New Schools


Royaume - Unis - Éducation - 4

5.1 Across the world, the case for the benefits of school autonomy has been established beyond doubt: in a school system with good quality teachers and clearly established standards, devolving as much decision-making to school level as possible ensures that decisions are being made by the professionals best able to make good choices for the children and young people they serve. Analysis of PISA data shows that the features of the strongest education systems combine autonomy (e.g. over staffing powers at school level) with accountability (e.g. systematic and external pupil-level assessments)69.


5.2 In many of the highest performing jurisdictions, school autonomy is central. In high-performing:

·         US States, Charter Schools – publicly funded independent schools set up by a legal ‘charter’ – have been engines of progress70.

For example, over 85 per cent of young people from deprived urban communities who attended one of the national network of Knowledge is Power Programme (KIPP) charter schools go on to college71.

·         In Alberta, Canada all schools are afforded significant autonomy in relation to how they teach and how they manage themselves72.

·         In Sweden, pupils who attend state-funded independent Free Schools outperform those in other state schools and a higher proportion (eight per cent more) go on to higher education73.


5.3 In this country, the record of independent state schools provides a striking testimony to the power of autonomy. City Technology Colleges (CTCs) were introduced in the late 1980s as innovative new schools outside local and central bureaucratic control.


They were the forerunners of Academies: independent state schools established in urban areas, which often had a history of low attainment, offering pupils aged 11–18 a truly stretching curriculum. CTCs are now among the best schools in the country, with great results and a record of continued improvement. CTCs not only have high standards, they also close the attainment gap. Poor pupils in CTCs, those eligible for free school meals, are more than twice as likely to achieve 5 good GCSEs including English and mathematics than other pupils eligible for free school meals74.


5.8 Academies have succeeded in tackling failure because they have the opportunity to set their own direction. Head teachers are given the freedom to innovate with the curriculum, insist on tougher discipline, pay staff more, extend school hours and develop a personal approach to every pupil. We will enhance the abilities of


Academies to innovate and improve by removing burdens, duties and

bureaucratic requirements that have accrued over time, while continuing to ensure a level playing field on admissions, particularly in relation to children with Special Educational Needs. We have already taken out many of the requirements which had been shoe-horned into the model Academy funding agreement – the contract between the Secretary of State and the Academy. We have removed unnecessary central prescription about curriculum and qualifications, target setting and the production of rigid plans. We believe that Academies will do more to serve their pupils well as a result of having freedom to do so in the way that their leaders and teachers think best.

6. Accountability


6.1 We believe that public services will improve most when professionals feel free to do what they believe is right, and are properly accountable for the results. Schools should evidently be accountable for achieving a minimum level of performance because tax-payers have a right to expect that their money will be used effectively to educate pupils and equip them to take their place in society.


But in recent years schools have suffered from a compliance regime which drove them to meet a bewildering array of centrally-imposed government targets. Schools should, instead, be accountable to parents, pupils and communities for how well they perform.


6.2 In creating a more autonomous school system, we will reduce duties, requirements and guidance on all schools, and make sure that every school can, over time, enjoy the freedoms that Academies currently have. We will dismantle the apparatus of central control and bureaucratic compliance. We will instead make direct accountability more meaningful, making much more information about schools available in standardised formats to enable parents and others to assess and compare their performance. And, through freeing up the system, we will increase parents’ ability to make meaningful choices about where to send their children to school.


6.3 In future:

·        Parents, governors and the public will have access to much more information about every school and how it performs.

·        Performance tables will set out our high expectations – every pupil should have a broad education and a firm grip of the basics.

·        We will use attainment and progress measures to create a more sophisticated minimum expectation for all schools.

·        Ofsted will refocus inspection on schools’ core educational purpose, and will release outstanding schools from all routine inspection.

·        We will help governing bodies to benefit from the skills of their local community in holding schools to account.


Parents, governors and the public will have access to much more information about every school and how it performs

6.4 Central to our approach is the need to make it easier for parents and the public to hold schools to account. In the past, too much information has been unavailable to parents, too difficult to find or not presented comprehensibly.

So, as we take away the centralising compliance system – the centrally-driven process of target setting, the requirement for every school to have a school improvement partner (SIP) and the requirement for every school to complete a self evaluation form – we will make sure that there is comprehensive information available to parents about every school.

6.5 We will make publicly available all the information which underpins government statistical publications. For example, we will make publicly available data about attainment in specific subjects, trends over time, class sizes, attendance levels, the composition of the pupil body and financial information. The data will be published in a standardised format which allows anyone to access and analyse it.

6.6 We will publish this school-level data in an easily accessible online format. Parents

will be able to choose the aspects of a school in which they are most interested, and search for or rank local schools against these priorities. For example, a parent could look for a local school where pupils with Special Educational Needs make good progress or which has strengths in music. A governor might look at how a particularly effective school is using its budget in order to learn efficiency lessons.

We will also publish ‘families of schools’ documents, which group similar schools in a region and provide detailed performance information which can be used by schools to identify other schools from which they can learn.

We will set a higher but fairer minimum standard for

every school


6.24 We want schools to be accountable first and foremost to parents and the community: increased transparency and better inspection will make this a reality.

But government action will be necessary in some cases. Where children are not being well-served by their school and there is not yet an alternative choice for parents, there is an urgent need to take action to improve the school.

This will be the case where a school is placed in an Ofsted category, and also where it is very low attaining. In each case, we will expect appropriate intervention and supportfor improvement.

We will help governing bodies to benefit from the skills of their local community in holding schools to account

6.28 School governors are the unsung heroes of our education system. They are one of the biggest volunteer forces in the country, working in their spare time to promote school improvement and to support head teachers and teachers in their work. To date, governors have not received the recognition, support or attention that they deserve. We will put that right.

6.29 The time and expertise of governors needs to be better respected and deployed. Sometimes governing bodies lack the information or training to challenge effectively and support the head teacher and senior leadership of a school to improve. We will work with the National Governors Association and others to clarify governing body accountabilities and responsibilities to focus more strongly on strategic direction, and encourage schools to appoint trained clerks who can offer expert advice and guidance to support them. We will make it easier for governors to set high expectations and ask challenging questions, by giving governors easier access to data about how their school compares to others, and the National College will offer high-quality training for chairs of governors.

7. School


7.1 Improving the recruitment, selection and training of school teachers and leaders, giving them increased authority and giving schools greater autonomy will give the school system greater capacity to improve. Alongside that, setting high standards through the curriculum and qualifications and holding schools accountable for the results they achieve will create a powerful driver of improvement. It is also important that schools have the right support to enable them to improve.

7.2 Over recent years, government has tended to use highly centralised approaches to improving schools. It has tried to lead, organise and systematise improvement activity, seeking to ensure compliance with its priorities. It has led target setting, introduced improvement initiatives focused on particular issues, used ring-fenced or targeted grants extensively and employed large numbers of field forces.

7.3 We think that this is the wrong approach. Government should certainly put in place the structures and processes which will challenge and support schools to improve. Where schools are seriously failing, or where known best practice is not being adopted appropriately, it is right to step in to secure for children the quality of education that they deserve. But it should be clear that the primary responsibility for improvement rests with schools. Government cannot determine the priorities of every school, and the attempt to secure compliance with its priorities reduces the capacity of the system to improve itself.

7.4 Instead our aim should be to create a school system which is more effectively self-improving. The introduction of new providers to the system, and the ability of parents, teachers and others to establish new schools is an important part of this, in bringing innovation and galvanising others to improve, especially in areas where parents are significantly dissatisfied. It is also important that we design the system in a way which allows the most effective practice to spread more quickly and the best schools and leaders to take greater responsibility and extend their reach.

7.5 We will:

·         Make clear that schools have responsibility for improvement. We will end the approach of trying to control improvement from the centre and make it easier for schools to learn from one another.

·         Make sure that every school has access to the support it needs through National and Local Leaders of Education, Teaching Schools and leading teachers, or by working in partnership with a strong school.

·         Encourage local authorities and schools to bring forward applications to the new Education Endowment Fund – funding for innovative projects to drive school improvement and to raise the attainment of deprived children in underperforming schools – and create a new collaboration incentive.

·         Make sure that schools have access to evidence on best practice, high-quality materials and improvement services which they can choose to use.

·         Support underperforming schools such as those below the new floor standards, and ensure that those which are seriously failing, or unable to improve their results, are transformed through conversion to Academy status.

We will make sure that schools are in control of their own improvement and make it easier for them to learn from one another

7.6 We will expect schools to set their own improvement priorities. As long as schools provide a good education, we will not mandate specific approaches. Schools will determine what targets to set for themselves, choose what forms of external support they want and determine how to evaluate themselves.

We will increase the number of National and Local Leaders of Education

7.7 National and Local Leaders of Education are among the best head teachers in this country and have a proven ability to work alongside other schools to support their improvement98. We will increase the number of National and Local Leaders of Education from 1,154 to approximately 3,000 over the next four years, so that schools wanting this form of support can find it easily.

The network of Teaching Schools will support improvement

7.8 The network of Teaching Schools will include the very best schools, with outstanding and innovative practice in teaching and learning and significant experience in developing teachers’ professional practice. These schools are best placed to lead system-wide improvement in an area. Over time, we will expect these schools to help to deploy National and Local Leaders of Education and leading teachers in support of other schools locally. We will look to these schools to brigade together and broker as necessary the different forms of support that other schools might need.

We will publish ‘families of schools’ data for every part of the country

7.10 Often schools find it more helpful to learn from schools which are contextually similar to them, and it is often easier to learn from a school in a different authority area, not too far away. We will publish regional ‘families of schools’ data which help schools to identify similar schools in their region which are performing differently and from which they can learn.

Voici des extraits du rapport : The importance of Teaching, The School White Paper 2010, Department for Education, Presented to Parliament by the Secretary of State for Education by Command of Her Majesty, November 2010