Celestica, offshore success

Un exemple-type du cheminement d’une compagnie canadienne en haute technologie ‘Celestica’,qui a augmenté  ces ventes et ces profits, mais en délocalisant ces opérations.

Extrait de : Made in China takes on whole new meaning , Andy Hoffman, Globe and Mail ,Jul. 23, 2011

Nearly all the electronics products that Toronto-headquartered Celestica manufactures in Suzhou are high-end. Workers here make things like X-ray printers and routers and switches, the critical hardware for telecommunications networks.

The plant shatters the stereotype that China is merely the sweatshop of the world, where cheap labour churns out inexpensive trinkets, toys and second-rate fare. What’s manufactured here must meet the standards of the world’s top medical facilities and the demands of the most heavily trafficked corporate communications systems.

One-third of the Chinese workers at Celestica’s Suzhou plant are engineers, and the Canadian company has a research and design facility in Shanghai.

“I don’t think there is anything we can’t build in China today,” says Brian Lau, vice-president and general manager of Celestica’s Asia sales group. “The products we are building here are all value-added products,” Mr. Lau says.

China’s manufacturing sector is quickly moving up the value chain.

Where once it produced poorly made clothes and plastic playthings, Chinese factories are now capable of making sophisticated electronics or pieces of machinery each worth hundreds of thousands of dollars.

Despite the increasingly complicated production methods,

China’s advantage over other manufacturers remains cost.

In Suzhou, a 45-minute train ride from Shanghai, a typical assembly line worker in the city is paid between $400 and $600 a month, while an engineer can earn between $1,000 and $2,000 a month.

China’s move to producing higher-end products is driven by necessity. Labour costs, while far cheaper than in North America, are rising fast and value-added products are a key way to offset inflation and keep the country’s massive manufacturing sector competitive. Producing more sophisticated products is also boosting income for both workers and companies, helping China toward its long-term goal of shaping an economy driven primarily by domestic consumption rather than overseas export demand.

The Asian economic powerhouse’s ascent up the manufacturing value chain portends not only an evolutionary shift for the Chinese economy, but also serves as a massive threat to an already battered manufacturing sector in the West. High-end production remained the last bastion of manufacturing prowess for Europe and North America while Asia dominated as a low-cost producer. Now, factories in China like Celestica’s Suzhou facility are proving that China is ready to close the technology gap and produce sophisticated goods at a lower cost.

Nos politiciens oligarchiques ne font rien pour réduire la délocalisation de grappe industrielle vers la Chine, beaucoup plus préoccupée à rester aux pouvoirs que de protéger leurs peuples.

Et quand une grappe industrielle se déplace essaie de le faire revenir bonne chance !

But China’s cost advantage is under threat. According to Asia-focused investment and advisory firm Intercedent, rising wages and an expected increase in the value of China’s currency means that mid-tier manufacturing wages in China will reach parity with minimum wage levels in the United States by 2017.

 “If this occurs, then there will likely be acceleration in the repatriation of low-end manufacturing jobs from China to North America or they will move to lower-wage countries,” Intercedent said in a recent report.



Les partisans de la mondialisation insistent, on l’a vu, sur le fait que les pays développés, s’ils doivent abandonner les emplois industriels peu qualifiés au processus de délocalisation, peuvent en revanche conserver les emplois qualifiés liés aux activités hautement technologiques.


Or l’on constate que la délocalisation concerne désormais également des emplois qualifiés. C’est ainsi que les activités de recherche-développement des entreprises font désormais également l’objet de délocalisations.


Multiples exemples seront présentés au cours de l’année 2011.


·         L’argument selon lequel le rattrapage progressif des salaires dans les pays émergents supprimera à terme l’intérêt de procéder à des délocalisations ne nous paraît pas davantage recevable. Le processus de rattrapage, en effet, s’il se produit jamais.


Sera d’une durée telle qu’il n’empêchera pas la désindustrialisation complète des pays occidentaux de se produire d’ici là.


On peut de toute façon parier qu’il existera encore longtemps des pays à bas coût qui pourront constituer des réceptacles pour les délocalisations (c’est ainsi par exemple que lorsque les dragons d’Asie du sud-est sont devenus des pays développés, le Japon a automatiquement déplacé ses délocalisations sur le Vietnam).


Juste l’Inde et la Chine représente un bassin de population de 2.4 milliards de personnes sans compter les pays avoisinants, avant qu’ils atteignent les standards des pays modernes, ça risque de prendre plusieurs décennies, il y a des grandes chance que les industries de haut niveau vont avoir eu le temps de se délocaliser, à cause du coût de la main-d’œuvre et de l’expertise des pays émergents

With the knowledge that their advantage in producing low-end goods will soon be tapped out, Chinese manufacturers are moving to more-sophisticated products. Even with a shrinking wage gap with the West, China’s massive work force, production methods and well-established shipping infrastructure will help it maintain an advantage over rivals in Europe and North America.

Avec un écosystème bien établi, il va être difficile de les concurrencer.

Minimum wage costs have risen an average of 23 per cent in China over the past year. While surging wages are a relatively recent phenomenon for the world’s largest exporter, the shift toward higher-end, value-added production in China has been under way for some time.

The Celestica plant is another case in point. Ten years ago, the factory produced simple circuit boards and consumer-grade electronics. The Canadian company’s high-end products were still designed and built primarily in the West.

But the crash in technology stocks in 2001 forced Celestica and other electronics firms to find cheaper places to produce nearly all of their products, said John Peri, Celestica’s chief operating officer.

Like most of its competitors, Celestica looked to Asia – and specifically China – for cost relief.

In addition to Suzhou and Shanghai, it also has manufacturing facilities in Dongguan in southern China. Of the company’s 35,000 employees, 6,000 are in China. Celestica also has plants in other low-labour-cost Asian countries, including Malaysia and Thailand.

At the Suzhou plant, the major initial challenge was working with local component suppliers to be able to produce the correct parts for the next generation of products.

China's changing manufacturing industry

“The suppliers have kept pace with the requirements. Management has been key,” Mr. Peri said in an interview. Over 90 per cent of the components used in Suzhou are now produced in China.

As Celestica increased the complexity of the electronics products it manufactured in China, finding qualified workers was also an issue.

But local universities now produce more than
enough qualified engineers to staff the plant.

The Suzhou plant can now make the most sophisticated electronics the company produces for customers like Alcatel-Lucent, Hewlett-Packard, Cisco, IBM and Research In Motion.

The network routers the company builds in Suzhou, for example, have a possible 45,000 different configurations.

“I don’t think things get much more complicated than what we make there today,” Mr. Peri said.

The most striking thing about the Suzhou facility is how quiet it is. The hum of the factory’s bright fluorescent lights is the loudest sound as workers quietly assemble parts for ATM machines and other electronics.

Nearby, a worker meticulously checks the quality of an X-ray sheet from a recently built printer. The machines, which are shipped to hospitals all over the world, have more than 1,400 mechanical parts and are assembled in an air-sealed “clean room” where dust particles are almost non-existent.

While most of the products produced in Suzhou end up being shipped overseas at the nearby port of Shanghai, more and more are staying within China. A decade ago, Chinese customers accounted for just 10 per cent of sales; now they account for more than 20 per cent.

The Suzhou plant is expected to expand its production range to include electronics for the aerospace industry. As Celestica’s head of sales in Asia Mr. Lau points out, over the next 20 years, half of the world’s airplane production is expected to come from China.

“The vision is not just low labour costs. We are trying to target customers who have local sales here,” he explains.

“The local market is a very enticing factor.”

Il est grand temps de prôner la démondialisation.

Un modèle à inventer


Si l'on souhaite conserver l'Etat-nation et la démocratie, il faut refuser l'hypermondialisation, mais une mondialisation modérée, dont l'objectif est de mettre en place des feux de signalisation permettant aux différents modèles économiques nationaux de ne pas se heurter.


Chaque gouvernement doit en effet être libre de suivre ses propres politiques économiques et de les protéger quand il recueille un assentiment populaire, y compris en mettant des barrières aux frontières.


Un protectionnisme raisonné et raisonnable


Si aucune limite n’est posée, ce qui va arriver peut d’ores et déjà être annoncé: une augmentation de la destruction d’emplois, une croissance dramatique du chômage non seulement dans l’industrie, mais tout autant dans l’agriculture et les services.

Extrait de : Celestica: les profits triplent, La Presse Canadienne . les affaires.com . 25-07-2011

Le manufacturier torontois de produits électroniques Celestica (TSX:CLS) a annoncé vendredi des profits de 45,7 millions $ US pour le deuxième trimestre, comparativement aux 13 millions $ US rapportés à pareille date l'année dernière, alors que ses revenus ont augmenté de 15 pour cent.

La compagnie a également déclaré des bénéfices de 21 cents US par action, alors qu'elle faisait état de bénéfices de six cents US par action pour la même période de 2010.

En excluant les éléments non récurrents, Celestica a rapporté des bénéfices nets ajustés de 58,7 millions $ US, ou 27 cents US par action, comparativement à 50,4 millions $ US, ou 22 cents US par action, lors du deuxième trimestre de l'année précédente.

Les revenus sont passés de 1,59 milliard $ US en 2010 à 1,83 milliard $ US en 2011. Ces résultats correspondent aux objectifs de la compagnie.

Le président et chef de la direction de l'entreprise, Craig Muhlhauser, a fait savoir par communiqué que Celestica avait pu déclarer ces résultats solides en raison d'un développement important de sa marge de profits.

Celestica a dit s'attendre à des revenus variant entre 1,725 milliard $ US et 1,875 milliard $ US au cours du troisième trimestre, et à des bénéfices nets par action de 23 à 29 cents US.