Canada: Chômage, Pauvreté, Précarité et Cohésion sociale (Graphiques)

Puisque j’ai parlé de la pauvreté et du chômage de l’Europe et de notre voisin américain, examinons notre cas, le Canada.

Deux rapports sur le sujet.

1.      People Patterns Report in Canada

2.      World of Work Report 2012

Extrait de : Canada Job Market Exhibits Enormous Disparities, People Patterns Report Says, Daniel Tencer, The Huffington Post, 05/09/2012

Canada’s youth are still struggling with a recession, even as the country’s job picture is improving, says a new study.

·         The under-25 crowd lost 195,400 jobs in 2009 and 2010, and only 19,300 of those came back in 2011, according to a report from People Patterns Consulting.

The report paints a picture of a jobs market that has huge disparities, not only in terms of age, but in terms of almost everything else.

Regional differences are large enough to make different parts of the country seem almost like different countries.

·         Among Canada’s smaller cities, the unemployment rate in 2011 ranged from 4.6 per cent to 16.4 per cent, People Patterns reported.

·         The Fort McMurray, Alberta, area -- the centre of the oil sands -- saw the number of jobs increase 95 per cent, while forestry-dependent Miramichi, New Brunswick, lost 66 per cent of its jobs.

Skills and available jobs

The disparity between skills and available jobs is growing as well. Eight of the 23 major occupations -- or 35 per cent -- were facing labour shortages last year, defined as an unemployment rate below three per cent.

At the same time, nearly half a million Canadians -- 496,000 -- had given up looking for work in 2011, People Patterns reported. This group, which isn’t counted as part of official unemployment figures, grew in size by two per cent from the year before. But the total number is still 50 per cent higher than it was in 2007, before the global economic crisis began.

Meanwhile, the number of people who hold second jobs reached an all-time record high for the third year in a row in 2011, with 5.4 per cent of workers holding more than one job.

Tellement pauvre ou si peu payant, qu’ils sont obligés d’avoir deux emplois, on commence à devenir comme des Américains.

·         Differences between industries are also pronounced. The manufacturing sector eked out a small net job gain of 16,000 in 2011, but employment was still down by 532,000 from its peak in 2004.

·         Meanwhile, employment in mining, oil and gas soared 70 per cent between 2000 and 2011, while construction saw jobs increase 56 per cent in the same period.

Le pétrole ou le gaz bon pour l’Ouest canadien,  pour la construction elle se fait par endettement ce qui est une fausse économie.

People Patterns also noted that Canada’s workforce is growing older – and not just because youth are struggling to find work.

·         The number of people aged 60 and over in the workforce has hit a record high, with 23 per cent of those aged 65 to 69 still working, while six per cent of those aged 70 and over are still in the workforce.

1.       Évidemment, les vieux n’ont pas assez cumulés de richesse, donc ils sont obligés de travailler plus longtemps, à moins que vous faîtes comme les retraités du Québec, ou plus de la moitié d’enter eux reçoivent le Supplément Garanti de Revenu, car vous êtres au seuil de la pauvreté.

2.       On doit, par contre, éliminer tous ceux qui reçoivent des retraites dorées pyramidales payées par un peuple qui lui est de plus en plus en pauvres.

Jobs Up, Wages Down

The unemployment rate jumped from a near record low of 6.1% in October 2008 to a high of 8.7% high in August 2009 and has declined slowly since then to 7.2% in March 2012. In spite of the recovery, unemployment duration increased again in 2011.

There was a another slight decrease in the number of discouraged job searchers in 2011, who just quit looking because they believed that nothing suitable was available, but their numbers were still 50% above pre-recession levels. Actual hours worked at all jobs advanced to 36.4 hours in 2011 up 24 minutes from the all-time low of 36 hours in 2009.

Real (after removing inflation) average weekly wages fell by 0.5% in 2011 following an increase of only 0.2% in 2010. This helps explain why the number of workers who have more than one job climbed for a third straight year to a record 5.4% in 2011. Women (6.4%) are now more likely to have a second job than are men (4.5%) while both were the same (4.6%) in 1989.

Bad News For Working Parents

In 2011, the employment rate for lone-parent mothers (55%), lone-parent fathers (79%) and mothers with an employed husband present (70%) all with children under the age of six continued to be below their prerecession peaks. The only exception in 2011 was for women with a non-employed husband for whom the employment rate (53%) was above the pre-recession rate.

The "monetary" value of childcare remains undervalued. In 2011, childcare and home support workers working full-time (30 hours or more per week) earned an average of $598 per week. This was the third lowest behind full-time chefs and cooks ($545) and retail sales persons ($589). On a more detailed level, babysitters, nannies and parent helpers were the lowest paid occupation from among over 700 occupations in the 2006 Census.

Manufacturing Still Struggling

After eight years of decline, the manufacturing sector created only 15,900 jobs in 2011. Employment in 2011 was about where it was in 1993 and down by 532,200 jobs since the peak in 2004.

Based on employment growth over the 2000 to 2011 period, the most rapidly expanding industries in Canada were mining and oil and gas extraction (+70.3%) and construction (+56.4%). Other leading growth industries (all service related) included professional, scientific, technical services (+39.9%), health care and social assistance (+37.9%) and real estate and leasing (+30.1%)

World of Work Report 2012

Better jobs for a better economy

World of Work Report 2012L'Office International du Travail a ainsi tiré la sonnette d'alarme dans son dernier rapport annuel, publié cette semaine:

«Il ne s'agit plus simplement d'un ralentissement conjoncturel (...). La crise de l'emploi est entrée dans une nouvelle phase structurelle (…) Les déséquilibres sur le marché du travail seront donc plus difficiles à éliminer».

Les auteurs n'hésitent pas à dresser la liste des évolutions les plus préoccupantes:

·         Les taux de chômage des jeunes ont augmenté dans quelque 80% des pays avancés et dans deux tiers des pays en développement.

·         Les taux de pauvreté ont augmenté dans la moitié des économies développées et dans un tiers des économies en développement (...).

·         En moyenne, plus de 40 % des demandeurs d’emploi des économies avancées sont au chômage depuis un an ou plus.

·         Le travail à temps partiel contraint s’est accru dans deux tiers des économies avancées. L’emploi temporaire a aussi augmenté dans la majorité de ces économies.

·         La part de l’emploi informel se situe à plus de 40% dans deux tiers des pays émergents ou en développement.

·         Dans 26 des 40 pays pour lesquels nous disposons de données, la proportion des travailleurs couverts par une convention collective a décliné entre 2000 et 2009.

·         28 %  des pays émergents et en développement et 65 % des économies avancées ont mis en place des politiques visant à réduire les prestations sociales pendant la crise.

Avec, pour résultat, une augmentation significative dans 57 des 106 pays analysés, et notamment dans les économies avancées —de «l'indice des troubles sociaux» que calcule l'institut.

Job quality

As discussed in the preceding section, advanced economies are still far below their 2007 peak and unemployment rates have continued to increase in almost all the countries in the group. However, there is little empirical evidence about the quality of jobs that have been created since the crisis.

Non-standard employment has tended to increase or has remained high

Canada - non-standard employment,


Canada - Incidence of precarious employment

Wages paid to temporary workers are comparatively low …

Workers on fixed-term contracts are paid less than permanent employees.

An analysis of temporary contracts in nine countries (advanced and developing), shows that temporary workers are paid about 40 per cent less than permanent workers in a number of countries.

New jobs created tend to entail relatively low wages.

There is significant cross-country heterogeneity in the quantity and quality of new jobs created.

In order to deepen the preceding analysis of the nature of new jobs created, countries have been grouped into four categories, depending on their aggregate employment record since 2007 and whether the incidence of non-standard employment

increased or not since 2007 (see Figure 1.7). For the purpose of the analysis, nonstandard employment includes temporary employment or precarious workers (involuntary part-time and temporary employment) for advanced countries and informal employment for developing countries.

1)       Category 1 consists of countries where employment rates have increased since 2007 and the incidence of non-standard employment has decreased.

2)       Category 2 consists of countries where employment rates increased compared to 2007 and the incidence of non-standard employment increased (see Figure 1.7, category 2).

3)       Category 3 consists of countries where employment rates decreased compared to 2007 and the incidence of non-standard employment also decreased (see Figure 1.7, category

4)       Category 4 consists of countries where employment rates decreased compared to 2007 and the incidence of non-standard employment increased (see Figure 1.7, category 4). This category has the largest number of countries and comprises the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela, Bulgaria, Canada, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, France, Greece, Hungary, India, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Mexico, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Sweden and the United Kingdom.

Canada - Employment rates and incidence of non-standard employment

Poverty rates have increased since the start of the crisis in advanced economies, and have tended to decrease in developing countries …

In advanced economies, the poverty threshold is a relative measure and is calculated as the percentage of the population living on an income below 60 per cent of the median income.

Canada - Pauvreté

Income inequalities are on the rise.

The increase in the number of unemployed, the decrease in earnings and the slowdown in growth has raised concerns about income inequalities.

Canada - Income inequality, pre-crisis and crisis

Changes in the risk of social unrest reflect the diverging employment trends

The labour markets in most economies have not recovered from the global crisis.

Moreover, the major economic slowdown is further affecting the labour market recovery. Further, the recovery in the labour market has largely been of a precarious kind, with increase in involuntary part-time and temporary employment and informal employment. The crisis has also led to an increase in poverty rates and inequality in half of advanced economies and one-third of developing economies.

These trends could further lead to reduced social cohesion.

A global annual survey shows a heightened sense of socio-economic insecurity in most parts of the world.

Canada - Change in the risk of social unrest between 2010 and 2011